In Indonesian Islamic law, a woman can not give herself in marriage. She can marry if only there is someone given her in marriage. Someone is Wali Nikah (Marriage Guardian).
Requirements to be wali nikah must: muslim, akil and baligh, has right to be wali nikah, no obstacle to be wali nikah.
Wali nikah is divided into wali nasab and wali hakim.
Wali nasab is wali that has blood connection with the bride. Wali nasab is divided into 4 groups in sequence of position. A group is more formered than the others according to closeness of relative with the bride. Those groups are :
1. Group of relative in upward stright line, i.e. : blood father, grandfather (father of father), etc.
2. Group of relative : blood brother or brother (from one father) or descent of them
3. Group of relative uncle, i.e. : father’s blood-brother (uncle), father’s brother one-father, and their descent
4. Grandfather’s blood-brother, grandfather’s brother (from one father), and their descent.
If in one group there are some people have right to be wali, so that the most rightful to be wali nikah is someone closer relative to bride. Example, if there are blood father and grandfather, so that wali nikah is blood father.
If in one group there are some people in same relative degree so that the most rightful is blood relative than one-father relative. Blood brother is more rightful than brother one-father.
If in one group there are some people with same relative degree i.e. similar blood relative degree or similar one-father relative degree so that they all have equal right to be wali nikah. In this case, especially to older person that fulfilled requirements as wali nikah.
If wali nikah that rightful, his sequence is not fulfilled as wali nikah, or because he is dumb, deaf or udzur so that right moves to the other according to next degree.
What about a women have no wali nasab is?
There is wali hakim for her.
Wali Hakim (Magistrate Guardian)
Wali Hakim is wali nikah that pointed by Minister of Religious Affairs or by official pointed the Minister, that given right and authority to act as wali nikah. (Kompilasi Hukum Islam/compilation of Islamic Law)
When is wali hakim can act as wali nikah?
Wali hakim can act as wali nikah just if there is no wali nasab, or it is impossible to presence wali nasab, or wali nasab’s address is unknown, or wali nasab is gaib or adlal or dislike. In case wali nasab adlal or dislike, wali hakim just can act as wali nikah after there is decision from Religious Court. (Compilation of Islamic Law article 23).
In case that wali nasab adlal or reluctand, Wali Hakim just cant act as wali nikah after there is decision from Religious Court.